EAST ASIAN LIBRARY RESOURCES GROUP OF AUSTRALIA

Newsletter No. 56 (July 2010)


China’s Kam Minority: A Short Bibliographic Outline of Kam-Related Research Materials in the University of Melbourne Library[1]

Catherine Ingram[2]

PhD candidate, Music/Asia Institute, University of Melbourne


 

While China’s Kam minority (who are known in Chinese as Dongzu 侗族) and their remarkable cultural traditions are not yet well known in the English-speaking world, they may be familiar to anyone who has followed UNESCO’s most recent recognition of Chinese Intangible Cultural Heritage, or watched China’s hugely popular national “Youth Song Contest” (in Chinese, qingge sai 青歌赛), or travelled in more remote regions of southwestern China. In 2009, the Kam singing tradition known in English as “big song” was placed on UNESCO’s Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity;[3] since 2008 Kam singers have increasingly featured amongst the medal winners of that nationally televised song competition;[4] and tourism in rural Kam regions—including Kam singing performances for tourists—have been steadily growing in popularity since the 1980s. Although research into these and other issues relating to Kam people is modest in size, it has also been slowly increasing—albeit almost exclusively produced in Chinese.

In the six years of research I conducted for my recently submitted doctorate, I focussed upon the contemporary face of Kam traditional Kam singing—and particularly upon the current situation regarding the Kam big song tradition. In the process of conducting this research I spent more than twenty months resident in rural Kam areas of southeastern Guizhou, where I was invited to learn to sing Kam song and to participate in many Kam song performances, and I was also very fortunate to have been able to access the excellent collection of Kam research materials now held in the University of Melbourne Library. As there is no widely used written form of the Kam language, songs have long been one of the most important traditional forms of recording and transmitting knowledge. Thus my study of Kam song has also required an understanding of many other aspects central to Kam life, as are noted in this brief bibliographic outline.

The sources mentioned below and listed in the selected bibliography are all held in the University of Melbourne Library—mainly the Baillieu Library—and all Chinese-language sources (the majority of written sources on Kam people) cited in this essay are held in the library’s extensive East Asian Collection. The sources are presented below in rough chronological order; as this outline clearly indicates, the University of Melbourne’s collection of research materials concerning Kam people is one of the most extensive and offers great research potential.[5] Before describing the collection in detail, I first give a brief background regarding Kam people.

Kam People: A Brief Background

The Kam are one of China’s fifty-five recognized minorities and are described as a group with a population of 2.96 million[6] mainly resident in southeastern Guizhou Province and the adjoining border regions of Hunan Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, as shown in Figure 1 (a small number of Kam are also resident in Hubei province).[7]

1007_ingram_1

Figure 1: Left: Map of China, showing major cities and the two provinces (Guizhou and Hunan Provinces) and one autonomous region (Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region) where most Kam people reside. Right: Counties with the largest concentration of Kam residence, and nearby cities. Liping Kam Autonomous County, which has the highest proportion of Kam residents of any of these counties, is shaded. Maps by Wu Jiaping.

Many Kam people speak a dialect of Kam, a tonal Tai-Kadai language that is completely different from Chinese and has no widely used written form.[8] Besides the rich Kam musical and poetic traditions, Kam culture also has other distinctive features: architectural traditions such as the building of huge, wooden pagoda-shaped dare low or “drum towers” (see Figure 2), cloth weaving and dyeing with indigo (see Figure 3), indigenous forms of social governance, religious beliefs focussing on the female deity Sa, various ritual practices, and particular dietary habits.

This rich Kam culture—particularly performances of big song—has become an important part of the expanding Kam tourism industry. The development of this industry has been a major strategy for regional development, and has featured the representing, packaging, and selling of Kam images and costumes, singing and dancing.[9] However, the overall economic development of Kam regions has lagged far behind that of the nation as a whole, and traditional agriculture (centred around rice farming) remains the dominant activity within Kam regions. Statistics indicate that as of 2006 one third of the Kam population lived below the official “absolute poverty” line of 668 yuan per year (currently equivalent to $A107),[10] and the situation in recent years has seen only minimal change. Due to the economic difficulties experienced in Kam areas, emigration of Kam people to other areas to seek employment has become one of their most important livelihood strategies. This large-scale migration of Kam youth has consequently influenced Kam social structure and cultural transmission in many significant ways.

1007_ingram_2

Figure 2: Views of two Kam villages in southeastern Guizhou The distinctive pagoda-shaped Kam dare low (“drum tower”) can be seen in each of the villages. Photographs by Catherine Ingram.

1007_ingram_3

Figure 3: Stages in the process of producing Kam cloth. Top Left: Indigo leaves soaking to produce dye. Top Right: Cloth hung to dry after each successive round of dyeing, rinsing, drying and beating. Left: Nay Jya-chai beating cloth between rounds of dyeing. Photographs by Catherine Ingram.

Kam People in Pre–Twentieth Century Sources

Pre–twentieth century written sources contain only “relatively infrequent”[11] mention of the ancestors of today’s Kam people, and do not mention the Kam using the Chinese name by which they are identified today. The Kam were only formally recognized as Dongzu during the state ethnic identification processes of the 1950s, initiated under the first decade of Communist rule. In earlier times, not only were the residents of today’s Kam areas referred to by many different names, but different groups of people who spoke what are now recognized to be dialects of the Kam language were identified in different ways, complicating Kam historical research.[12] The earliest descriptions of Kam people’s ancestors and/or their environment that seem likely to be based upon first-hand observations and that appear in these pre-twentieth-century sources date from the late Song Dynasty (960–1279). These include Lao xue’an biji 老学庵笔记 [Notes Made at the Old Student's Cottage] by Lu You 陆游, Ximan congxiao 溪蛮丛笑 [Collected Tales of the Barbarians of the Southwest] by Zhu Fu 朱辅,[13] and Lingwai daida 岭外代答 [A Categorical Description of the Region Beyond the Passes], by Zhou Qufei 周去非. The principal Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) source is the Chiya 赤雅 [A Dictionary About the South], by Kuang Lu 邝露.[14]

Qing Dynasty (1644–1911) sources dating from before (or at the turn of) the twentieth century include a far greater number of descriptions of the ancestors of today’s Kam people.[15] These sources include the 1690 Qian shu 黔书 [Book of Guizhou], by Tian Wen 田雯; two eighteenth-century works by Tan Cui 檀萃 (Shuo man 说蛮 [Regarding the Barbarians] and Qian nang. 黔囊 [A Handbook about Guizhou]), and the 1778 Chu dong zhilue 楚峒志略 [Brief Records of the “Dong” in the Chu Kingdom], by Wu Shenglan 吴省兰. Nineteenth-century sources which mention Kam ancestors include the 1813 Qian ji 黔记 [Records of Guizhou], by Li Zongfang 李宗昉, Guzhou zaji 古州杂记 [Miscellaneous Records Concerning Guzhou], by Lin Pu 林溥, the 1842 Jiaqing chongxiu yitong zhi: Guizhou 嘉庆重修一统志:贵州 [Revised Unified Gazetteer of the Jiaqing Reign Period (1796–1820): Guizhou], and the 1845 Liping fu zhi 黎平府志 [Liping Prefecture Gazetteer].[16]

Other important pre–twentieth century sources on this research area held in the collection include reproductions of the various illustrated works that mainly date from the late Qing and which are known as Bai miao tu 百苗图 (“Miao Albums”).[17] Also of note are several first-hand English-language accounts that provide general descriptions of the region and date from the late Qing.[18] Finally, several recent historical works provide important data on Kam people, environment and culture preceding the twentieth century, including: Guizhou tongshi 贵州通史 [A General History of Guizhou] of both the Ming and Qing,[19] collections of essays on the history of Guizhou and of Kam regions of Hunan,[20] and several recent English-language analyses of the region’s situation during late Imperial times.[21]

1900 – 1960s

The first half of the twentieth century was a turbulent period in China’s history, and little research concerning Kam people and culture was carried out. Notable exceptions are Chen Guojun’s 1942 article entitled “Dongjia zhong de gulou” 侗家中的鼓楼 [Kam Drum Towers],[22] and the information on the Kam appearing in the 1946 Sanjiang county gazetteer.[23]

After the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, ethnic identification became a major state project. From that time until the beginning of the Cultural Revolution (1966), research in this area was promoted.[24] Although relatively few publications date from this period, many of these publications remain of immense value to researchers today. One of the first—and the earliest article on Kam music—was Xue Liang’s 薛良 1953 article entitled “Dongjia minjian yinyue de jiandan jieshao” 侗家民间音乐的简单介绍 [A Simple Introduction to Kam Folk Music].[25] The first full-length book on Kam singing, Dongzu dage (ga lao) Guizhou minjian yinyue jikan 侗族大歌(嘎老)贵州民间音乐集刊[Kam Big Song (Ga Lao), Guizhou Folk Music Collected Periodical]), published in 1958, was another milestone in research and publications on Kam culture, and is held in this collection. Also of great value are three slim booklets consisting of reports on research conducted during the 1950s in Kam areas of Guizhou and Guangxi.[26] Two draft surveys of Xinhuang and Tongdao counties, Hunan, also date from this period, as does a collection of historical materials relating to Chinese Communist Party history of Sanjiang County during 1943–87.[27]

1970s and 1980s

While publications dating from the 1970s and 1980s, following the end of the Cultural Revolution (in 1976), are mainly focused upon general accounts of major aspects of Kam culture, language, environment and society, they also represent the firm beginnings of more detailed research exploring particular aspects relating to Kam people. Several English-language studies dating from this period are articles by You Yuwen and Peng Jianqun,[28] and chapters by Yang Quan and Zheng Guoqiao in the 1988 linguistic study of the Tai-Kadai language family (a collection of essays entitled Comparative Kadai: Linguistic Studies Beyond Tai).[29] Many other important studies on the Kam language (written in Chinese) also date from this period, as do various Chinese-language collections of Kam song. Of particular interest is the rare Dongzu zuxian nali lai (Dongzu gu’ge) 侗族祖先哪里来(侗族古歌) [Where Did the Kam Ancestors Come From? (Ancient Kam Songs)],[30] which contains the lyrics to twenty Kam songs of migration, thus constituting an important source for studies of Kam social history. A selection of these numerous and varied sources—which also include a number of gazetteers of counties in Kam areas—are listed in the selected bibliography below.

1990s – 2010

From the 1990s onwards, publications on Kam people, culture, language, society, history, and contemporary situation have increased markedly, and many focus upon specific aspects relating to Kam people. The University of Melbourne holds more than one hundred and twenty works from this period, which cannot all be listed or discussed here. English-language sources from this period include the second full-length book on the Kam people written in English,[31] two monographs on Kam architecture,[32] a book-length study of the Kam language in Guizhou province,[33] discussion of Kam indigo-dyeing,[34] and two bilingual English/Chinese sets of Kam song audiovisual recordings.[35] Three Kam dictionaries, some of which include English introductions and referencing, are also held.[36]

Far more extensive is the Chinese-language collection. This includes numerous gazetteers, several e-books, important collections of essays (particularly recommended are Dongzu dage yanjiu wushi nian 侗族大歌研究五十年 [Fifty Years of Big Song Research])[37] and the two-volume Dongzu bainian shilu 侗族百年实录 [Veritable Records of One Hundred Years of the Kam]),[38] and a wide range of works in other areas, a selection of which are listed below. The collection is particularly strong in the areas of Kam singing and Kam architecture, and the publications are increasingly specialized by region, with works focussing only on Kam people in Hunan,[39] Guangxi [40] and, especially, Guizhou.[41] There has also been a growth in publications recognizing the importance of space and place in relation to Kam music-making and other forms of culture.[42]

Conclusion

In conclusion, the breadth and depth of this collection offers a very valuable research resource in both historical and contemporary materials. It permits a degree of longitudinal Kam-related studies that is unlikely to be available in many other collections throughout the world, and offers an extremely comprehensive insight into the research in many Kam-related areas that has been carried out by Chinese scholars. It would provide a rich background for any researchers preparing to conduct fieldwork in Kam areas, or undertaking comparative research relating to southwestern China and/or amongst Tai-Kadai-speaking communities. The collections of transcribed songs and song lyrics are also likely to be helpful to researchers working in areas related to Chinese music or poetry. Finally, the collection would be extremely useful for research in contemporary Chinese politics and/or society relating to Chinese state attitudes towards minority groups, and for studies of Chinese scholarly research amongst Chinese minorities. It would also be of use to anthropologists and social scientists interested in researching cultural change, and to human geographers exploring localized conceptions of space and place.

As the many rich and diverse aspects of Kam people and their fascinating culture continue to gain national and international attention, it can be expected that the collection at the University of Melbourne Library will prove to be of increasing use to researchers working in greatly diverse fields and disciplines.

Catherine Ingram

PhD candidate, Music/Asia Institute, University of Melbourne
ingramc@unimelb.edu.au; wahlenbergia@hotmail.com

Endnotes
[1]Very special thanks to Bick-Har Yeung (Head Librarian, East Asian Collection, University of Melbourne Library) for her interest and great efforts in developing this excellent Kam-related research collection.

[2] I gratefully acknowledge Dr Wu Jiaping (伍家平) for contributing the description of the current Kam socioeconomic situation, for the two maps reproduced in this article, and for comments on the relevance of the collection in relation to the discipline of human geography.

[4]See 2010 nian di shi’si jie qingge sai mingsai xiang huojiang mingdan 2010年第十四届青歌赛名赛项获奖名单 [The Names of the Medal Winners of the 2010 Fourteenth Youth Song Competition], available at http://news.mso.com.cn/481_zhengjie/2133782.html, and the online video available at http://www.56.com/u44/v_NTMxMjk2ODE.html.

[5] While the selected bibliography given below mainly covers books in the collection, it also includes publications in periodicals not currently available through CNKI, but held by the University of Melbourne Library. Journal articles are an important research resource, but as they are now widely available online they are not discussed here.

[6] According to the 2000 census: see 2000 nian renkou pucha Zhongguo minzu renkou ziliao 2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料 [Chinese Nationalities Population Materials from the 2000 Population Census]), edited by Guojia tongjiju renkou he shehui keji tongjisi 国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司 [Department of Population Social Science and Technology Statistics, National Bureau of Statistics] and Guojia minzu shiwu weiyuanhui jingji fazhansi 国家民族事务委员会经济发展司 [Department of Economics and Development, National Ethnic Affairs Commission] (Beijing: Minzu chubanshe [Nationalities Press], 2003).

[7] See Wu Wanyuan 吴万源, “Hubei E’xi Dongzu kaocha ji” 湖北鄂西侗族考察记 [Records of Investigation into the Kam of Western Hubei]. In Dongzu bainian shilu (shang xia ce) 侗族百年实录(上下册)[Veritable Records of One Hundred Years of the Kam], edited by “Dongzu bainian shilu” bianweihui《侗族百年实录》编委会 [“Veritable Records of One Hundred Years of the Kam” Editorial Committee], 726–32. (Beijing: Zhongguo wenshi chubanshe [China Literature and History Press], 2000).

[8] A romanized Kam orthography was promulgated in 1958, but is not widely used.

[9] See Timothy S. Oakes, “Tourism in Guizhou: The Legacy of Internal Colonialism.” In Tourism in China: Geographic, Political, and Economic Perspectives, edited by Alan A. Lew and Lawrence Yu, 203–22 (Boulder: Westview Press, 1995); Timothy Oakes, Tourism and Modernity in China (London & New York: Routledge, 1998); Timothy Oakes, “Ethnic Tourism in Rural Guizhou: Sense of Place and the Commerce of Authenticity.” In Tourism, Ethnicity, and the State in Asian and Pacific Societies, edited by M. Picard and R. E. Wood, 35–70. (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 1999). For a more recent perspective, see Catherine Ingram, “Hwun hwun jon ka (Listen): Kam Villagers Singing Big Song in Early Twenty-First-Century China” (PhD, University of Melbourne, 2010); and Catherine Ingram, with Wu Jialing 吴家玲, Wu Meifang 吴美芳, Wu Meixiang 吴梅香, Wu Pinxian 吴品仙, and Wu Xuegui 吴学桂, “Taking the Stage: Rural Kam Women and Contemporary Kam ‘Cultural Development’,” in Women, Gender and Development in Rural China, edited by Tamara Jacka and Sally Sargeson (Cheltenham, UK & Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, forthcoming).

[10] 2006 nian Qiandongnan tongji nianjian 2006年黔东南统计年鉴 [Qiandongnan Statistical Yearbook 2006] (Beijing: Zhongguo tongji chubanshe [China Statistics Press], 2007).

[11] Yang Quan, and Jerold A. Edmondson, “The Kam in Ancient Times,” in Southeast Asian Linguistic Studies in Honour of Vichin Panupong, edited by A. S. Abramson, 325–36 (Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Press, 1997), 325.

[12] Some of the many names used to refer to the ancestors of today’s Kam included: Dongren[洞人、峒人、狪人], Dongjia [洞家、峒家、狪家], and Dongmiao [洞苗、峒苗、狪苗].

[13] See Fu Taihao 符太浩 ed., Ximan congxiao yanjiu 溪蛮丛笑研究 [A Study of the “Collected Tales of the Barbarians of the Southwest” (by Zhu Fu 朱辅, Song Dynasty)] (Guiyang: Guizhou minzu chubanshe [Guizhou Nationalities Press], 2003).

[14] Dating from 1635; see Lan Hong’en 蓝鸿恩, commentary, Chiya kaoshi. 赤雅考释 [Research into “A Dictionary About the South” by Kuang Lu 邝露, 1635] (Nanning: Guangxi minzu chubanshe [Guangxi People’s Press], 1995).

[15] However, not all descriptions appear to be based on first-hand observations and there is much replication amongst these sources.

[16] A rare microform copy of the Liping fu zhi is held in the library’s collection.

[17] Examples of this genre are reproduced in Li Zefeng 李泽奉, and Liu Ruzhong 刘如仲 eds., Qingdai minzu tuzhi 清代民族图志 [Illustrated Records of Ethnic Groups During the Qing Dynasty]. (Xining: Qinghai renmin chubanshe [Qinghai People's Press], 1997); Yang Tingshuo 杨庭硕, and Pan Shengzhi 潘盛之 eds., Baimiao tu chaoben cibian (shang, xia) 百苗图抄本汇编(上、下) [A Compilation of Handcopied Hundred Miao Pictures (2 Volumes)] (Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 2004); and David M. Deal and Laura Hostetler, transl. and ed., The Art of Ethnography: A Chinese “Miao Album” (Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 2006). For an English-language introduction to this genre see Laura Hostetler, “Introduction,” in Deal and Hostetler, ed., The Art of Ethnography, xvii–lxvii. For examples of what were probably Kam ancestors pictured in these albums see Deal and Hostetler ed., The Art of Ethnography, 70–71, 88–89; Yang and Pan, ed. Baimiao tu chaoben,230–35; and Li and Liu, ed. Qingdai minzu tuzhi, 217–21. See C. Patterson Giersch’s Asian Borderlands: The Transformation of Qing China’s Yunnan Frontier (Cambridge MA & London: Harvard University Press, 2006) for a discussion of other forms of Qing ethnography.

[18] Including Alexander Hosie, Three Years in Western China: A Narrative of Three Journeys in Ssu-Chuan, Kuei-Chow and Yun-Nan. 2nd ed. (London: George Philip & Son, 1897); and Samuel R. Clarke, Among the Tribes in South-West China (Taipei: The Chinese Association for Folklore, [1900] 1984).

[19] Guizhou Tongshi: Ming 贵州通史:明 [A General History of Guizhou: Ming Dynasty], edited by Guizhou tongshi bianweihui 贵州通史编委会 [“A General History of Guizhou” Editorial Committee] (Beijing: Dangdai Zhongguo chubanshe [Contemporary China Press], 2002); Guizhou Tongshi: Qing 贵州通史:清 [A General History of Guizhou: Qing Dynasty], edited by Guizhou tongshi bianweihui [“A General History of Guizhou” Editorial Committee] (Beijing: Dangdai Zhongguo chubanshe [Contemporary China Press], 2002).

[20] Hou Shaozhuang 侯绍庄, Qianshi luncong 黔史论丛 [A Collection of Essays on the History of Guizhou] (Guiyang: Guizhou minzu chubanshe [Guizhou Nationalities Press], 2005); Hunan Dongzu shiliao: jiesu 湖南侗族史料:节俗[Historical Materials About the Kam in Hunan: Festivals and Customs], edited by Li Genfu 李根富 and Wu Wenzhi 吴文志 (Beijing: Xianzhuang shuju [Traditional Threadbinding Publishing House], 2007), Hunan Xinhuang Dongzu zizhixian xianqing shiliao 湖南新晃侗族自治县县庆史料 [Historical Materials on the County Anniversary of Xinhuang Kam Autonomous County, Hunan], edited by Zhang Chao 张超 and Chen Xizhi 陈锡智 (Beijing: Xianzhuang shuju [Traditional Threadbinding Publishing House], 2007).

[21] John Herman, “National Integration and Regional Hegemony: The Political and Cultural Dynamics of Qing State Expansion 1650–1750” (PhD, University of Washington, 1993); John E. Herman, Amid the Clouds and Mist: China’s Colonization of Guizhou, 1200–1700 (Cambridge MA & London: Harvard University Press, 2007); Laura Hostetler, Qing Colonial Enterprise: Ethnography and Cartography in Early Modern China (Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press, 2001); and Robert D. Jenks, Insurgency and Social Disorder in Guizhou: The “Miao” Rebellion 18541873 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1994).

[22] Chen Guojun 陈国钧, “Dongjia zhong de gulou” 侗家中的鼓楼 [Kam Drum Towers], in Guizhou Miao Yi shehui yanjiu 贵州苗夷社会研究 / Studies on the Society of the Aborigines in Kweichou [Guizhou], edited by Chen Guojun 陈国钧, 190–94. Yazhou minsu: shehui shenghuo zhuankan 亚洲民俗:社会生活专刊 / Asian Folklore and Social Life Monographs, vol. 46 (Taipei: The Orient Cultural Service, [1942] 1973). Many of the articles in Inez de Beauclair’s Ethnographic Studies: The Collected Papers of Inez de Beauclair (Taipei: Southern Materials Centre, Inc, 1986) are also a useful source dating from this period, although not one held in this collection.

[23] Sanjiang xian zhi 三江县志 [Sanjiang County Gazetteer], 2 volumes (Taipei: Cheng wen chubanshe [Chengwen Press], [1946] 1975).

[24] For further details of this process, see Jennifer Took, A Native Chieftancy in Southwest China: Franchising a Tai Chieftaincy under the Tusi System of Late Imperial China (Leiden: Brill, 2005).

[25] Xue Liang 薛良, “Dongjia minjian yinyue de jiandan jieshao” 侗家民间音乐的简单介绍 [A Simple Introduction to Kam Folk Music] (Renmin yinyue 人民音乐[People's Music], no. XII (1953): 42–52). Republished in Zhang Zhongxiao 张中笑 and Yang Fanggang 杨方刚, eds. Dongzu dage yanjiu wushi nian 侗族大歌研究五十年 [Fifty Years of Research into Kam Big Song], 42–52 (Guiyang: Guizhou minzu chubanshe [Guizhou Nationalities Press], 2003). Other significant early articles by Fang Jishen 方暨申 and Hong Tao 洪滔, both published in 1959 in Yinyue yanjiu 音乐研究 [Music Research], are available through CNKI; Fang’s article is also republished in Zhang and Yang, ed. Dongzu dage yanjiu, 165–87.

[26] Sanlong Research Mtls. (Full title: Guizhou sheng Liping xian Sanlong xiang Dongzu shehui jingji diaocha ziliao 贵州省黎平县三龙乡侗族社会经济调查资料[Research Materials on the Society and Economy of Sanlong Township, Liping County, Guizhou Province]), edited by Zhongguo kexueyuan minzu yanjiusuo Guizhou shaoshu minzu shehui lishi diaochazu 中国科学院民族研究所贵州少数民族社会历史调查组 [Society and History Research Committee for Guizhou’s Minorities at the Nationalities Research Institute Chinese Academy of Science] and Zhongguo kexueyuan Guizhou fenyuan minzu yanjiusuo 中国科学院贵州分院民族研究所 [Minorities Research Institute at the Guizhou Branch of Chinese Academy of Science]. (Vol. 12, Guizhou shaoshu minzu shehui lishi diaocha ziliao 贵州少数民族社会历史调查资料之十二 [Research Materials on the Society and History of Guizhou's Minority Groups], 1963); Siyang Research Rpt. (Full title: Guangxi Shangsi xian Siyang xiang Tongzu shehui lishi jingkuang diaocha baogao 广西上思县思阳乡僮[侗]族社会历史情况调查报告 [Research Report on the Kam Socio-Historical Situation of Siyang Township, Shangsi County, Guangxi Province]), edited by Zhongguo kexueyuan minzu yanjiusuo Guangxi shaoshu minzu shehui lishi diaochazu 中国科学院民族研究所广西少数民族社会历史调查组 [Society and History Research Committee for Guangxi’s Minorities at the Nationalities Research Institute Chinese Academy of Science], 1963; and Pingdeng Research Mtls. (Full title: Guangxi Longsheng ge zu zizhixian Pingdeng renmin gongshe Pingdeng shengchan dadui Dongzu shehui lishi diaocha cailiao 广西龙胜各族自治县平等人民公社平等生产大队侗族社会历史调查材料 [Research Materials on Kam Society and History of Pingdeng Large Production Team, Pingdeng Commune, Longsheng Multi-Ethnic Autonomous County, Guangxi]), edited by Zhongguo kexueyuan minzu yanjiusuo Guangxi shaoshu minzu shehui lishi diaochazu 中国科学院民族研究所广西少数民族社会历史调查组 [Society and History Research Committee for Guangxi’s Minorities at the Nationalities Research Institute Chinese Academy of Science], 1965.

[27] Tongdao Dongzu zizhixian gaikuang (chugao) 通道侗族自治县概况(初稿)[Tongdao Kam Autonomous County Survey (Draft)], edited by Tongdao Dongzu zizhixian bianji weiyuanhui《通道侗族自治县概况》编辑委员会 [ “Tongdao Kam Autonomous County Survey” Editorial Committee] (Changsha: Hunan renmin chubanshe [Hunan People’s Press], 1959); Xinhuang Dongzu zizhixian gaikuang (chugao) 新晃侗族自治县概况(初稿)[Xinhuang Kam Autonomous County Survey (Draft)], edited by Xinhuang Dongzu zizhixian bianji weiyuanhui《新晃侗族自治县概况》编辑委员会 [“Xinhuang Kam Autonomous County Survey” Editorial Committee] (probably published in Changsha, 1959); Zhongguo gongchandang Guangxi Zhuangzu zizhiqu Sanjiang Dongzu zizhixian zuzhishi ziliao 1943–1987 中国共产党广西壮族自治区三江侗族自治县组织史资料1943-1987 [Organizational Historical Materials from 1943–1987 from Sanjiang Kam Autonomous County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Chinese Communist Party], edited by Zhonggong Sanjiang Dongzu zizhi xianwei zuzhibu 中共三江侗族自治县委组织部 [Organizational Department of the Sanjiang Kam Autonomous County Party Committee], Zhonggong Sanjiang Dongzu zizhi xianwei dangshi bangongshi 中共三江侗族自治县委党史办公室 [Office of Party History of the Sanjiang Kam Autonomous County Party Committee] and Sanjiang Dongzu zizhixian dang'an ju 三江侗族自治县档案句 [Archival Bureau of the Sanjiang Kam Autonomous County] (Nanning: Guangxi renmin chubanshe [Guangxi People's Press], 1992).

[28] You Yuwen, “With the Dong People of Guangxi” (China Reconstructs 28, no. 7 (1979): 22–25); Peng Jianqun, “Dong Customs in Song and Dance” (Translated by Fang Zhiyun) (China Reconstructs 36 (June 1987): 66–68).

[29] Yang Quan. “Developmental Tendencies in Kam Phonology.” In Comparative Kadai: Linguistic Studies Beyond Tai, edited by Jerold A. Edmondson and David B. Solnit, 27–42. (Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics (Publication Number 86), 1988); Zheng Guoqiao, and Yang Quan. “The Sounds of Rongjiang Kam.” In Edmondson and Solnit, ed., Comparative Kadai, 43–58.

[30] Dongzu zuxian nali lai (Dongzu guge) 侗族祖先哪里来(侗族古歌) [Where Did the Kam Ancestors Come From? (Ancient Kam Songs)], edited by Qiandongnan Miaozu Dongzu zizhizhou wenyi yanjiushi 黔东南苗族侗族自治州文艺研究室 [The Art and Literature Research Office of the Southeast Guizhou Miao and Kam Autonomous Prefecture] and Guizhou minjian wenyi yanjiuhui 贵州民间文艺研究会 [Guizhou Folk Literature and Arts Association] (Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People's Press], 1981).

[31] Norman, D. Geary, Ruth B. Geary, Ou Chaoquan, Long Yaohong, Jiang Daren, and Wang Jiying. The Kam People of China: Turning Nineteen (London & New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003). The first full-length English-language monograph, Gail Rossi and Paul Lau’s The Dong People of China: A Hidden Civilization (Singapore: Hagley & Hoyle, 1991), is not held in this collection.

[32] Ruan Xing, Allegorical Architecture: Living Myth and Archetectonics in Southern China (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2006); Klaus Zwerger, Vanishing Tradition: Architecture and Carpentry of the Dong Minority in China (Bangkok: Orchid Press, 2006).

[33] Long Yaohong 龙耀宏, and Zheng Guoqiao 郑国桥, The Dong Language in Guizhou Province, China,translated by D. N. Geary. (Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics (Publication Number 126), 1998). On Kam expressives, see also Matthias Gerner, “Expressives in Kam (Dong 侗): A Study in Sign Typology (Part 1).” (Cahiers de Linguistique, Asie Orientale 33, no. 2 (2004): 159–202).

[34] In Jenny Balfour-Paul, Indigo (London: British Museum Press, 1998).

[35] Dong Folksongs: People and Nature in Harmony. (Chinese title: Zhongguo Dongzu minge: ren yu ziran de hesheng 贵州侗族音乐:人与自然的和声 [Chinese Kam Folksongs: People and Nature in Harmony]) [CD and accompanying Chinese/English booklet] (Hong Kong: Guizhou wenhua yinxiang chubanshe [Guizhou Cultural A/V Publishing House], 2002); and Dong Folksongs: People and Nature in Harmony. (Chinese title: Guizhou Dongzu yinyue: ren yu ziran de hesheng 贵州侗族音乐:人与自然的和声 [Guizhou Kam Music: People and Nature in Harmony]) [CD, DVD and accompanying Chinese/English booklet] (Hong Kong: Mediafusion Creations Publishing, 2007). The 2007 publication is a reissue of the 2002 CD, with slightly adapted liner notes and with an additional DVD shot during the same period as the recordings were made. One Northern Kam song also appears on the earlier Vocal Music of Contemporary China Vol.2 (FE4092): The National Minorities, selected and annotated by Han Kuo-Huang [cassette and notes] (New York: Folkways Records & Service Corp., 1980), also held in the library collection.

[36] Thomas John Hudak ed., Kam–English Dictionary, Based on the Kam–Chinese Dictionary Compiled by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Tempe, Arizona: Program for Southeast Asian Studies Monograph Series, 1999); Somsonge Burusphat, Sumittra Suraratdecha, and Yang Quan (compilers), Kam Chinese Thai English Dictionary. Edited by J. A. Edmondson, Yang Tongyin and Qin Qiaohang. (Nakhonpathom, Thailand: Institute of Language and Culture for Rural Development, Mahidol University, Thailand, 2000); and Ou Hengyuan 欧亨元 ed., Cic Deenx Gaeml Gax / Dong–Han cidian 侗汉词典 [Kam–Han Dict-ionary] (Beijing: Minzu chubanshe [Nationalities Press], 2004). Ou’s Kam–Chinese dictionary is particularly useful as it includes some linguistic material from the many different Kam dialects.

[37] Zhang Zhongxiao 张中笑, and Yang Fanggang 杨方刚, eds, Dongzu dage yanjiu wushi nian 侗族大歌研究五十年[Fifty Years of Research into Kam Big Song] (Guiyang: Guizhou minzu chubanshe [Guizhou Nationalities Press], 2003).

[38] Zhang and Yang, ed. Dongzu bainian shilu.

[39] Wu Xiangxiong 吴祥雄, ed. Hunan Dongzu fengqing 湖南侗族风情 [The Local Customs of the Kam in Hunan] (Changsha: Yuelu shushe [Yuelu Publishing House], 2003); Lu Zhongwu 陆中午, and Wu Bingsheng 吴炳升, Dongzu daguan 侗族大观 [The Magnificent Spectacle of the Kam], Zhongguo Hunan Tongdao Dongzu wenhua yichan jicheng: di yi ji (xia) 中国湖南通道侗族文化遗产集成,第一辑(下) [A Collection of the Cultural Heritage of the Kam of Tongdao, Hunan Province, China: Part 1 (Volume 2)] (Beijing: Minzu chubanshe [Nationalities Press], 2004); Zhongguo Hunan Tongdao Dongzu wenhua yichan jicheng 中国湖南通道侗族文化遗产集成 [An Anthology of the Cultural Heritage of the Kam of Tongdao, Hunan, China], edited by Lu Zhongwu 陆中午 and Wu Bingsheng 吴炳升 (Beijing: Minzu chubanshe [Nationalities Press], 2004); Wang Jianrong 王建荣 (chief ed.), Hunan Dongzu bai nian 湖南侗族百年 [A Hundred Years of Kam History in Hunan] (Changsha: Yuelu shu she [Yuelu Publishing House], 1998); He Pinghua 何平华, and Yang Zhidong 杨志东 (photography), Zhijiang Dongzu 芷江侗族 [The Kam of Zhijiang] (Beijing: Minzu chubanshe [Nationalities Press], 2005).

[40] Sanjiang Dongzu zizhixian zhi 三江侗族自治县志 [Sanjiang Kam Autonomous County Gazetteer], edited by “Guangxi Sanjiang Dongzu zizhixian zhi” bianzuan weiyuanhui《广西三江侗族自治县志》编纂委员会 [“Guangxi Sanjiang Kam Autonomous County Gazetteer” Editorial Committee]. (Beijing: Zhongyang minzu xueyuan chubanshe [Central Nationalities Institute Press], 1992).

[41] Zhongguo minjian gequ jicheng: Guizhou juan (shang) 中国民间歌曲集成:贵州卷(上) [Anthology of Chinese Folksong: Guizhou (Volume 1)]), edited by Zhongguo minjian gequ jicheng quanguo bianji weiyuanhui 中国民间歌曲集成全国编辑委员会 [National Editorial Committee for the Anthology of Chinese Folksong] and Zhongguo minjian gequ jicheng Guizhou juan bianji weiyuanhui 中国民间歌曲集成-贵州卷编辑委员会 [Guizhou Volume Editorial Committee for the Anthology of Chinese Folksong] (Beijing: Zhongguo ISBN zhongxin [China ISBN Centre], 1995); Liu Feng 刘锋, and Long Yaohong 龙耀宏, ed, Dongzu: Guizhou Liping xian Jiulong cun diaocha 侗族:贵州黎平县九龙村调查 [The Kam: An Investigation in Jiulong Village, Liping County, Guizhou] (Kunming: Yunnan daxue chubanshe [Yunnan University Press], 2004); Liu Yahu 刘亚虎, ed., Tianlai zhi yin: Dongzu dage 天籁之音:侗族大歌 [The Sound of Heaven: Kam Big Song] (Ha’erbin [Harbin]: Heilongjiang renmin chubanshe [Heilongjiang People's Press], 2005); Pan Nianying 潘年英, Zoujin yinyue tiantang: Dongzu dage zhi xiang Xiao Huang cun tianye kaocha shilu 走进音乐天堂:侗族大歌之乡小黄村田野考察实录 [Entering into a Musical Paradise: Faithful Records from Fieldwork in Xiao Huang Village, a Home of Kam Big Song] (Nanning: Guangxi renmin chubanshe [Guangxi People's Press], 2007); Zhang Lijun 张力军, and Xiao Kezhi 肖克之, ed., Xiao Huang Dongzu minsu: bowuguan zai feiwuzhi wenhua yichan baohu zhong de lilun yanjiu yu shixian 小黄侗族民俗:博物馆在非物质文化遗产保护中的理论研究与实践 [The Kam Customs of Xiao Huang: Museums Within the Research Theory and Practice of Protecting Intangible Cultural Heritage] (Beijing: Zhongguo nongye chubanshe [China Agricultural Press], 2008); Zhongguo geyao jicheng Guizhou juan 中国歌谣集成贵州卷 [Anthology of Chinese Songs: Guizhou Volume], edited by Zhongguo minjian wenxue jicheng quanguo bianji weiyuanhui 中国民间文学集成全国编辑委员会 [Anthology of Chinese Folk Literature National Editorial Committee] and Zhongguo geyao jicheng Guizhou juan bianji weiyuanhui 中国歌谣集成贵州卷编辑委员会 [Anthology of Chinese Songs: Guizhou Volume Editorial Committee] (Beijing: Zhongguo ISBN zhongxin [China ISBN Centre], 2009).

[42] Such as Tuxiang renleixue shiye zhong de Guizhou Dongzu gulou 图像人类学视野中的贵州侗族鼓楼 [A Visual Anthropological View of the Kam Drum Towers of Guizhou], edited by Guizhou sheng wenhuating 贵州省文化厅 [Guizhou Province Cultural Bureau] (Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 2002); and Zhang Bairu 张柏如, Dongzu jianzhu yishu 侗族建筑艺术 [The Art of Kam Architecture] (Changsha: Hunan meishu chubanshe [Hunan Arts Press], 2004)

Selected Bibliography of Kam-Related Research Materials

Materials are divided chronologically, corresponding to the discussion in the main text. For ease of reference, edited works produced by groups (rather than individuals) are listed under their title. All materials listed here are held in the University of Melbourne Library.

Pre–Twentieth Century Sources

Clarke, Samuel R. Among the Tribes in South-West China. Edited by Lou Tsu-Kuang in collaboration with Wolfram Eberhard, Asian Folklore and Social Life Monographs, Volume 138. Taipei: The Chinese Association for Folklore, [1900] 1984.

Deal, David M. and Laura Hostetler, transl. and ed. The Art of Ethnography: A Chinese “Miao Album.” Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 2006.

Fu Taihao 符太浩, ed. Ximan congxiao yanjiu 溪蛮丛笑研究 [A Study of the “Collected Tales of the Barbarians of the Southwest” (by Zhu Fu 朱辅, Song Dynasty)]. Guiyang: Guizhou minzu chubanshe [Guizhou Nationalities Press], 2003.

Guizhou Tongshi: Ming 贵州通史:明 [A General History of Guizhou: Ming Dynasty]. Edited by Guizhou tongshi bianweihui 贵州通史编委会 [“A General History of Guizhou” Editorial Committee]. Beijing: Dangdai Zhongguo chubanshe [Contemporary China Press], 2002.

Guizhou Tongshi: Qing 贵州通史:清 [A General History of Guizhou: Qing Dynasty]. Edited by Guizhou tongshi bianweihui [“A General History of Guizhou” Editorial Committee]. Beijing: Dangdai Zhongguo chubanshe [Contemporary China Press], 2002.

Herman, John. “National Integration and Regional Hegemony: The Political and Cultural Dynamics of Qing State Expansion 1650–1750,” PhD, University of Washington, Washington, 1993.

______. Amid the Clouds and Mist: China’s Colonization of Guizhou, 12001700. Cambridge MA & London: Harvard University Press, 2007.

Hosie, Alexander. Three Years in Western China: A Narrative of Three Journeys in Ssu-chuan, Kuei-chow and Yun-nan. 2nd ed. London: George Philip & Son, 1897.

Hostetler, Laura. Qing Colonial Enterprise: Ethnography and Cartography in Early Modern China. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press, 2001.

Hou Shaozhuang 侯绍庄. Qianshi luncong. 黔史论丛 [A Collection of Essays on the History of Guizhou]. Guiyang: Guizhou minzu chubanshe [Guizhou Nationalities Press], 2005.

Hunan Dongzu shiliao: jiesu 湖南侗族史料:节俗[Historical Materials About the Kam in Hunan: Festivals and Customs]. Edited by Li Genfu 李根富 and Wu Wenzhi 吴文志. Beijing: Xianzhuang shuju [Traditional Threadbinding Publishing House], 2007.

Hunan Xinhuang Dongzu zizhixian xianqing shiliao. 湖南新晃侗族自治县县庆史料 [Historical Materials on the County Anniversary of Xinhuang Kam Autonomous County, Hunan]. Edited by Zhang Chao 张超 and Chen Xizhi 陈锡智. Beijing: Xianzhuang shuju [Traditional Threadbinding Publishing House], 2007.

Jenks, Robert D. Insurgency and Social Disorder in Guizhou: The “Miao” Rebellion 1854–1873. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1994.

Jiaqing chongxiu yitong zhi: Guizhou. 嘉庆重修一统志:贵州 [Revised Unified Gazetteer of the Jiaqing Reign Period (1796–1820)], yuan 185–189 ce, juan 499–515 [original books 185–189, volumes 499–515]. (Cut-off date for administration was 1820, gazetteer completed 1842, ethnographic material mainly dates from mid-1700s: see David Holm, Recalling Lost Souls: The Baeu Rodo Scriptures Tai Cosmogonic Texts from Guangxi in Southern China. (Bangkok: White Lotus, 2004), 42). Reproduced in Zhongguo gudai dili zongzhi congkan 中国古代地理总之丛刊 [Collection of Ancient Chinese geographical knowledge], Volume 32. Taipei: Zhonghua shuju [Zhonghua Book Company], 1986.

Lan Hong’en 蓝鸿恩, commentary. Chiya kaoshi. 赤雅考释 [Research into “A Dictionary About the South” by Kuang Lu 邝露, 1635], Nanning: Guangxi minzu chubanshe [Guangxi People's Press], 1995.

Li Zefeng 李泽奉, and Liu Ruzhong 刘如仲, eds. Qingdai minzu tuzhi 清代民族图志 [Illustrated Records of Ethnic Groups During the Qing Dynasty]. Xining: Qinghai renmin chubanshe [Qinghai People’s Press], 1997.

Li Zongfang 李宗昉. Qian ji 黔记 [Records of Guizhou], 1813. Republished in Xinan shidi wen di shi’er juan 西南史地文第十二卷 [Physical Geography and History of the Southwest, Volume 12], 21–64. Lanzhou: Lanzhou daxue chubanshe [Lanzhou University Press], 2003.

Lin Pu 林溥 [1796–1821] Guzhou zaji 古州杂记 [Miscellaneous Records Concerning Guzhou], date unknown.
Liping fu zhi 黎平府志 [Liping Prefecture Gazetteer], 1845.

Lu You 陆游. Lao xue’an biji. 老学庵笔记 [Notes Made at the Old Student’s Cottage]. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju chubanshe [Chinese Literary Bureau Press], [<1209] 1979.

Wu Shenglan 吴省兰. Chu dong zhilue. 楚峒志略 [Brief Records of the “Dong” in Chu Kingdom], 1778. Republished in Xinan minsu wenxian di si juan 西南民俗文献第四卷 [Literature on Southwestern Customs, Volume 4]. Lanzhou: Lanzhou daxue chubanshe [Lanzhou University Press], 2003.

Yang Tingshuo 杨庭硕, and Pan Shengzhi 潘盛之, eds. Baimiao tu chaoben cibian (shang, xia) 百苗图抄本汇编(上、下) [A Compilation of Handcopied Hundred Miao Pictures (2 Volumes)]. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 2004.

Zhou Qufei 周去非. Lingwai daida. 岭外代答 [A Categorical Description of the Region Beyond the Passes]. Shanghai: Shanghai yuandong chubanshe [Shanghai Yuandong Press], [1178] 1996.

1900 – 1960s

Chen Guojun 陈国钧. “Dongjia zhong de gulou” 侗家中的鼓楼 [Kam Drum Towers]. In Guizhou Miao Yi shehui yanjiu 贵州苗夷社会研究 / Studies on the Society of the Aborigines in Kweichou [Guizhou], edited by Chen Guojun 陈国钧, 190–94. Yazhou minsu: shehui shenghuo zhuankan 亚洲民俗:社会生活专刊/ Asian Folklore and Social Life Monographs, vol. 46. Taipei: The Orient Cultural Service, [1942] 1973.

Dongzu dage (ga lao) Guizhou minjian yinyue jikan 侗族大歌(嘎老)贵州民间音乐集刊[Kam Big Song (Ga Lao), Guizhou Folk Music Collected Periodical]), Edited by Guizhou sheng wenlian 贵州省文联 [Guizhou Provincial Cultural Association]. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 1958.

Pingdeng Research Mtls. (Full title: Guangxi Longsheng ge zu zizhixian Pingdeng renmin gongshe Pingdeng shengchan dadui Dongzu shehui lishi diaocha cailiao 广西龙胜各族自治县平等人民公社平等生产大队侗族社会历史调查材料 [Research Materials on Kam Society and History of Pingdeng Large Production Team, Pingdeng Commune, Longsheng Multi-Ethnic Autonomous County, Guangxi]). Edited by Zhongguo kexueyuan minzu yanjiusuo Guangxi shaoshu minzu shehui lishi diaochazu 中国科学院民族研究所广西少数民族社会历史调查组 [Society and History Research Committee for Guangxi’s Minorities at the Nationalities Research Institute Chinese Academy of Science], 1965.

Sanjiang xian zhi 三江县志 [Sanjiang County Gazetteer], 2 volumes. Taipei: Cheng wen chubanshe [Chengwen Press], [1946] 1975.

Sanlong Research Mtls. (Full title: Guizhou sheng Liping xian Sanlong xiang Dongzu shehui jingji diaocha ziliao 贵州省黎平县三龙乡侗族社会经济调查资料[Research Materials on the Society and Economy of Sanlong Township, Liping County, Guizhou Province]). Edited by Zhongguo kexueyuan minzu yanjiusuo Guizhou shaoshu minzu shehui lishi diaochazu 中国科学院民族研究所贵州少数民族社会历史调查组 [Society and History Research Committee for Guizhou’s Minorities at the Nationalities Research Institute Chinese Academy of Science] and Zhongguo kexueyuan Guizhou fenyuan minzu yanjiusuo 中国科学院贵州分院民族研究所 [Minorities Research Institute at the Guizhou Branch of Chinese Academy of Science]. Vol. 12, Guizhou shaoshu minzu shehui lishi diaocha ziliao 贵州少数民族社会历史调查资料之十二 [Research Materials on the Society and History of Guizhou's Minority Groups], 1963.

Siyang Research Rpt. (Full title: Guangxi Shangsi xian Siyang xiang Tongzu shehui lishi jingkuang diaocha baogao 广西上思县思阳乡僮[侗]族社会历史情况调查报告 [Research Report on the Kam Socio-Historical Situation of Siyang Township, Shangsi County, Guangxi Province]). Edited by Zhongguo kexueyuan minzu yanjiusuo Guangxi shaoshu minzu shehui lishi diaochazu 中国科学院民族研究所广西少数民族社会历史调查组 [Society and History Research Committee for Guangxi’s Minorities at the Nationalities Research Institute Chinese Academy of Science], 1963.

Tongdao Dongzu zizhixian gaikuang (chugao) 通道侗族自治县概况(初稿)[Tongdao Kam Autonomous County Survey (Draft)]. Edited by Tongdao Dongzu zizhixian bianji weiyuanhui《通道侗族自治县概况》编辑委员会 [“Tongdao Kam Autonomous County Survey” Editorial Committee]. Changsha: Hunan renmin chubanshe [Hunan People's Press], 1959.

Xinhuang Dongzu zizhixian gaikuang (chugao) 新晃侗族自治县概况(初稿)[Xinhuang Kam Autonomous County Survey (Draft)]. Edited by Xinhuang Dongzu zizhixian bianji weiyuanhui《新晃侗族自治县概况》编辑委员会 [“Xinhuang Kam Autonomous County Survey” Editorial Committee]. Publication details unclear, probably Changsha, 1959.

Zhongguo gongchandang Guangxi Zhuangzu zizhiqu Sanjiang Dongzu zizhixian zuzhishi ziliao 1943–1987 中国共产党广西壮族自治区三江侗族自治县组织史资料1943-1987 [Organizational Historical Materials from 1943–1987 from Sanjiang Kam Autonomous County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Chinese Communist Party]. Edited by Zhonggong Sanjiang Dongzu zizhi xianwei zuzhibu 中共三江侗族自治县委组织部 [Organizational Department of the Sanjiang Kam Autonomous County Party Committee], Zhonggong Sanjiang Dongzu zizhi xianwei dangshi bangongshi 中共三江侗族自治县委党史办公室 [Office of Party History of the Sanjiang Kam Autonomous County Party Committee] and Sanjiang Dongzu zizhixian dang’an ju 三江侗族自治县档案句 [Archival Bureau of the Sanjiang Kam Autonomous County]. Nanning: Guangxi renmin chubanshe [Guangxi People’s Press], 1992.

1970s – 1980s
Dongzhai gulou yanjiu 侗寨鼓楼研究 [Research into Kam Village Drum Towers]. Edited by Guizhou sheng wenguanhui bangongshi [Guizhou Province Office of Cultural Administration] and Guizhou sheng wenhua chubanting wenwuchu [Cultural Relics Department of Guizhou Provincial Culture Publishing Bureau]. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People's Press], 1985.

Dongzu jianshi 侗族简史 [A Brief History of the Kam]. Edited by “Dongzu jianshi” bianxiezu《侗族简史》编写组 [“Brief History of the Kam” Editorial Committee]. Guiyang: Guizhou minzu chubanshe [Guizhou Nationalities Press], 1985.

Dongzu min’ge xuan 侗族民歌选 [A Selection of Kam Folksongs]. Edited by Yang Tongshan 杨通山, Guo Wei 过伟, Meng Guangchao 蒙光朝, and Zheng Guangsong 郑光松. Shanghai: Shanghai wenyi chubanshe [Shanghai Literature and Art Press], 1980.

Dongzu minjian gushi xuan 侗族民间故事选 [A Selection of Kam Folk Stories]. Edited by Yang Tongshan 杨通山, Meng Guangchao 蒙光朝, Guo Wei 过伟, Zheng Guangsong 郑光松 and Long Yucheng 龙玉成. Shanghai: Shanghai wenyi chubanshe [Shanghai Literature and Art Press], 1982.

Dongzu pipa ge  侗族琵琶歌 [Kam pipa songs]. Edited by Guizhou minjian wenyi yanjiuhui 贵州民间文艺研究会 [Guizhou Folk Arts Council]. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 1981.

Dongzu wenxue shi  侗族文学史 [A History of Kam Literature]. Edited by Dongzu wenxue shi bianxiezu 侗族文学史编写组 [“A History of Kam Literature” Editorial Committee]. Guiyang: Guiyang minzu chubanshe [Guiyang Nationalities Press], 1988.

Dongzu zuxian nali lai (Dongzu gu’ge) 侗族祖先哪里来(侗族古歌)[Where Did the Kam Ancestors Come From? (Ancient Kam Songs)]. Edited by Qiandongnan Miaozu Dongzu zizhizhou wenyi yanjiushi 黔东南苗族侗族自治州文艺研究室 [The Art and Literature Research Office of the Southeast Guizhou Miao and Kam Autonomous Prefecture] and Guizhou minjian wenyi yanjiuhui 贵州民间文艺研究会 [Guizhou Folk Literature and Arts Association]. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 1981.

Liang Min 梁敏. Dongyu jianzhi 侗语简志 [Brief Records of the Kam Language]. Beijing: Minzu chubanshe [Nationalities Press], 1980.

Liao Taosheng 廖涛声, ed. Dongzu duandi 侗族短笛 [Kam Short Bamboo Flute (Songs)]. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 1985.

Liping xian zhi 黎平县志 [Liping County Gazetteer]. Chengdu: Sichuan Bashu shushe [Sichuan Bashu Publishing House], 1989.
Long Yucheng 龙玉成, ed. Dongzu qingge 侗族情歌 [Kam Lovesongs]. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 1988.

Ma Mingzhen 马名振. “Dongzu yinyue” 侗族音乐 [Kam music]. In Guizhou shaoshu minzu yinyue 贵州少数民族音乐 [The Music of the Minority Groups of Guizhou], edited by Guizhou sheng minzu shiwu weiyuanhui wenjiao chu 贵州省民族事务委员会文教处 [Literature and Education Office of the Guizhou Province Nationality Affairs Committee], 55–102. Guiyang: Guizhou minzu chubanshe [Guizhou Nationalities Press], [1989] 1997.

Peng Jianqun. “Dong Customs in Song and Dance,” translated by Fang Zhiyun. China Reconstructs 36 (June 1987): 66–68.
Qiandongnan Miaozu Dongzu zizhizhou gaikuang  黔东南苗族侗族自治州概况 [A Survey of Southeast Guizhou Miao and Kam Autonomous Prefecture]. Edited by “Qiandongnan Miaozu Dongzu zizhizhou gaikuang” bianxiezu 《黔东南苗族侗族自治州概况》编写组 [“A Survey of Southeast Guizhou Miao and Kam Autonomous Prefecture” Editorial Committee]. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 1986.

Tongdao Dongzu zizhixian gaikuang 通道侗族自治县概况 [Tongdao Kam Autonomous County Survey]. Edited by Tongdao Dongzu zizhixian bianxiezu《通道侗族自治县概况》编写组 [“Tongdao Kam Autonomous County Survey” Editorial Committee]. Changsha: Hunan renmin chubanshe [Hunan People’s Press], 1986.

Vocal Music of Contemporary China Vol.2 (FE4092): The National Minorities, selected and annotated by Han Kuo-Huang [cassette and notes]. New York: Folkways Records & Service Corp., 1980.

Wang Jun 王均, and Ouyang Jueya 欧阳觉亚, eds. Zhuang Dong yuzu yuyan jianzhi 壮侗语族语言简志 [A Brief Account of the Zhuang-Kam Language Family]. Beijing: Minzu chubanshe [Nationalities Press], 1984.

Yang Guoren 杨国仁. “Ji ‘Zumu’” 祭“祖母” [Ceremonies to the “Ancestral Mother”]. In Jieri fengqing yu chuanshuo 节日风情与传说 [Customs and Legends Concerning Festivals], edited by Li Ruizheng 李瑞政, 126–40. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 1983.

Yang Guoren 杨国仁, ed. Dongzu xushi ge 侗族叙事歌 [Kam Narrative Songs]. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 1986.

———, ed. Dongzu zuoye ge 侗族坐夜歌 [Kam Songs (Sung by Young People During) Evening Sitting]. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 1988.

Yang Guoren 杨国仁, and Wu Dingguo 吴定国, eds. Dongzu lisu ge 侗族礼俗歌 [Kam Etiquette Songs]. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 1984.

Yang Quan 杨权 “Developmental Tendencies in Kam Phonology.” In Comparative Kadai: Linguistic Studies Beyond Tai, edited by J. A. Edmondson and D. B. Solnit, 27–42. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics (Publication Number 86), 1988.

Yang Tongshan 杨通山, Meng Guangchao 蒙光朝, Guo Wei 过伟, Deng Guangsong 邓光松, and Zhou Dongpei 周东培, eds. Dongxiang fengqing lu 侗乡风情录 [A Record of Kam Customs]. Chengdu: Sichuan minzu chubanshe [Sichuan Nationalities Press], 1983.

You Yuwen. “With the Dong People of Guangxi.” China Reconstructs 28 no.7 (1979): 22–25.

Yuping Dongzu zizhixian gaikuang 玉屏侗族自治县概况 [Yuping Kam Autonomous County Survey]. Edited by Yuping Dongzu zizhixian bianxiezu《玉屏侗族自治县概况》编写组 [“Yuping Kam Autonomous County Survey” Editorial Committee]. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 1985.

Zheng Guoqiao, and Yang Quan. “The Sounds of Rongjiang Kam.” In Comparative Kadai: Linguistic Studies Beyond Tai, edited by J. A. Edmondson and D. B. Solnit, 43–58. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics (Publication Number 86), 1988.

Zheng Hanfeng 郑寒风. Guizhou Dongzu yinyue (Nanbu fangyan qu). 贵州侗族音乐(南部方言区) [Music of the Kam People of Guizhou (Southern Dialect Region)]. Edited by Guizhou sheng wenguanhui bangongshi 贵州省文管会办公室[Guizhou Province Office of Cultural Administration] and Guizhou sheng wenhua chubanting wenwuchu 贵州省文化出版厅文物处 [Cultural Relics Department of Guizhou Provincial Culture Publishing Bureau]. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 1985.

1990s – 2010
Balfour-Paul, Jenny. Indigo. London: British Museum Press, 1998.

Chen Yi 陈衣 “Qiansheng Dongxiang fang gujin” 黔省侗乡访古今 [Past and Present Research in Kam Areas of Guizhou]. In Tianye diaocha shilu: Minzu diaocha huiyi 田野调查实录:民族调查回忆 [A Record of Actual Events in Fieldwork Investigations: Recollections on Investigations of the Nationalities], edited by Hao Shiyuan 郝时远, 286–96. Beijing: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe [Social Science Literature Press], 1999.

Congjiang xian zhi 从江县志 [Congjiang County Gazetteer]. Edited by “Guizhou sheng Congjiang xian zhi” bianzuan weiyuanhui 《贵州省从江县志》编纂委员会 [“Guizhou Province, Congjiang County Gazetteer” Editorial Committee]. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 1999.

Dong Folksongs: People and Nature in Harmony. (Chinese title: Zhongguo Dongzu minge: ren yu ziran de hesheng 贵州侗族音乐:人与自然的和声 [Chinese Kam Folksongs: People and Nature in Harmony]) [CD and accompanying Chinese/English booklet]. Hong Kong: Guizhou wenhua yinxiang chubanshe [Guizhou Cultural A/V Publishing House], 2002.

Dong Folksongs: People and Nature in Harmony. (Chinese title: Guizhou Dongzu yinyue: ren yu ziran de hesheng 贵州侗族音乐:人与自然的和声 [Guizhou Kam Music: People and Nature in Harmony]) [CD, DVD and accompanying Chinese/English booklet; CD as per 2002 publication listed above] Hong Kong: Mediafusion Creations Publishing, 2007.

Dongxue yanjiu (san): minzu yishi xin juexing 侗学研究(三):民族意识新觉醒 [Kam Studies Research (3): A New Awakening of Nationalities Consciousness]. Edited by Guizhou sheng Dongxue yanjiuhui 贵州省侗学研究会 [Guizhou Provincial Committee for Kam Studies Research]. Guiyang: Guizhou minzu chubanshe [Guizhou Nationalities Press], 1998.

Dongxue yanjiu (si): xibu da kaifa zhong de zhenxing lu 侗学研究(四):西部打开发中的振兴路 [Kam Studies Research (4): The Road to Vigorous Development Through Opening and Development of the Western Regions]. Edited by Guizhou sheng Dongxue yanjiuhui 贵州省侗学研究会 [Guizhou Provincial Committee for Kam Studies Research]. Guiyang: Guizhou minzu chubanshe [Guizhou Nationalities Press], 2000.

Dongzu bainian shilu (shang xia ce) 侗族百年实录(上下册) [Veritable Records of One Hundred Years of the Kam]. Edited by “Dongzu bainian shilu” bianweihui《侗族百年实录》编委会 [“Veritable Records of One Hundred Years of the Kam” Editorial Committee]. Beijing: Zhongguo wenshi chubanshe [China Literature and History Press], 2000.

Dongzu jianshi 侗族简史 [A Brief History of the Kam]. Edited by Dongzu jianshi bianxiezu 侗族简史编写组 [Editing and Writing Group for “A Brief History of the Kam”] and Dongzu jianshi xiuding ben bianxiezu 侗族简史修订本编写组 [Editing and Writing Group for a Revised Edition of “A Brief History of the Kam”]. Beijing: Minzu chubanshe [Minorities Press], 2008.

Dongzu minjian wenxue shi 侗族民间文学史 [A History of Kam Folk Literature]. Edited by Yang Quan 杨权 and and Zheng Guoqiao 郑国乔. Beijing: Zhongyang minzu xueyuan chubanshe [Central Nationalities Institute Press], 1992.

Feng Zuyi 冯祖贻, Pan Nianying 潘年英, Zhu Junming 朱俊明, Long Yuehong 龙跃红, Li Shuangbi 李双璧, Li Xiaohong 李晓红, ed. Dongzu wenhua yanjiu 侗族文化研究 [Research into Kam Culture]. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 1999.

Fu Anhui 傅安辉, and Yu Dazhong 余达忠. Jiuzhai minsu: yi ge Dongzu shequ de wenhua bianqian 九寨民俗:一个侗族社区的文化变迁 [The Folk Customs of Jiuzhai: Cultural Change in a Kam Society]. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 1997.

Geary, Norman, D., Ruth B. Geary, Ou Chaoquan, Long Yaohong, Jiang Daren, and Wang Jiying. The Kam People of China: Turning Nineteen. London & New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

Gerner, Matthias. “Expressives in Kam (Dong 侗): A Study in Sign Typology (Part 1).” Cahiers de Linguistique, Asie Orientale 33, no. 2 (2004): 159–202.

Guizhou gu cunluo: Zhaoxing 贵州古村落:肇兴[Historical Villages of Guizhou: Zhaoxing]. Edited by “Guizhou gu cunluo: Zhaoxing” bianweihui 《贵州古村落:肇兴》编委会 [“Historical Villages of Guizhou: Zhaoxing” Editorial Committee]. Guiyang: Guizhou minzu chubanshe [Guizhou Nationalities Press], 2007.

Guizhou “liushan liushui” minzu diaocha ziliao xuanbian: Dongzu juan  贵州“六山六水”民族调查资料选编:侗族卷 [An Edited Selection of Guizhou “Six Mountains and Six Rivers” Nationalities Research Materials: Kam Volume]. Edited by Guizhou sheng minzu shiwu weiyuanhui 贵州省民族事务委员会 [Guizhou Province Nationalities Affairs Committee] and Guizhou sheng minzu yanjiusuo 贵州省民族研究所 [Guizhou Province Nationalities Research Office]. Guiyang: Guizhou minzu chubanshe [Guizhou Nationalities Press], 2008.

He Pinghua 何平华, and Yang Zhidong 杨志东 (photography). Zhijiang Dongzu 芷江侗族 [The Kam of Zhijiang]. Beijing: Minzu chubanshe [Nationalities Press], 2005.

Huang Caigui 黄才贵. Nushen yu fanshen: Dongzu “sama” wenhua yanjiu. 女神与泛神:侗族“萨玛”文化研究 [Goddesses and Pantheism: Research into Kam “Sa Ma” culture]. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 2004.
Huang Yong 黄勇. Hanyu Dongyu guanxi ci yanjiu 汉语侗语关系词研究 [Research into Words Connecting the Han and Kam Languages]. Tianjin: Tianjin guji chubanshe [Tianjin Ancient Records Press], 2002.

Hudak, Thomas John, ed. Kam-English Dictionary, Based on the Kam-Chinese Dictionary Compiled by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Monograph Series. Tempe, Arizona: Program for Southeast Asian Studies Monograph Series, 1999.

Jingzhou xian zhi 靖州县志 [Jingzhou County Gazetteer]. Edited by Jingzhou Miaozu Dongzu zizhixian zhi bianzuan weiyuanhui 《靖州苗族侗族自治县志》编纂委员会 [“Jingzhou Miao and Kam Autonomous County Gazetteer” Editorial Committee]. Beijing: Shenghuo, dushu, xinzhi sanlian shudian [Lifestyle, Reading and New Knowledge Triple-Linked Bookshop], 1994.

Li Jinfang 李锦芳. Dongtai yuyan yu wenhua 侗台语言与文化 [Tai-Kadai Language and Culture]. Beijing: Minzu chubanshe [Nationalities Press], 2002.

Liang Min 梁敏, and Zhang Junru 张均如. Dong Tai yuzu gailun 侗台语族概论 [An Introduction to the Kam-Tai Language Family]. Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe [China Social Sciences Press], 1996.

Liao Junxiang 廖君湘. Nanbu Dongzu chuantong wenhua tedian yanjiu 南部侗族传统文化特点研究 [A Study of the Characteristics of Traditional Southern Kam Culture]. Beijing: Minzu chubanshe [Nationalities Press], 2007.

Liu Feng 刘锋, and Long Yaohong 龙耀宏, eds. Dongzu: Guizhou Liping xian Jiulong cun diaocha 侗族:贵州黎平县九龙村调查 [The Kam: An Investigation in Jiulong Village, Liping County, Guizhou]. Kunming: Yunnan daxue chubanshe [Yunnan University Press], 2004.

Liu Yahu 刘亚虎, ed. Tianlai zhi yin: Dongzu dage 天籁之音:侗族大歌 [The Sound of Heaven: Kam Big Song]. Ha’erbin [Harbin]: Heilongjiang renmin chubanshe [Heilongjiang People’s Press], 2005.

Liu Zhifeng 刘芝凤. Zhongguo Dongzu minsu yu daozuo wenhua 中国侗族民俗与稻作文化 [The Folk Customs and Rice-Growing Culture of the Kam People of China]. Beijing: Renmin chubanshe [People’s Press], 1999.

Long Yaohong 龙耀宏 and Long Yuxiao 龙宇晓, eds. Dongzu dage pipa’ge  侗族大歌琵琶歌 [Kam Big Song and Pipa Song]. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 1997.

Long Yaohong 龙耀宏, and Zheng Guoqiao 郑国桥. The Dong Language in Guizhou Province, China. Translated by D. Norman Geary. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics (Publication Number 126), 1998.

Luo Kanglong 罗康隆. “Taoyuan” shenchu yi Dongjia: Dongzu ”桃源“深处一侗家:侗族 [From the Depths of the “Peach Blossom Garden”: The Kam]. Kunming: Yunnan daxue chubanshe [Yunnan University Press], 2001.

Luo Kangzhi 罗康智 and Luo Kanglong 罗康隆. Chuantong wenhua zhong de sheng jice lue: yi Dongzu wei li’an 传统文化中的生计策略:以侗族为例案 [A Brief Account of Tactics of Livelihood in Traditional Culture: Taking the Kam as an Example]. Beijing: Minzhu chubanshe [Nationalities Press], 2009.

Ni Dabai 倪大白. Dong Tai yu gailun 侗台语概论 [An Introduction to the Kam-Tai Languages]. Beijing: Zhongyang minzu xueyuan chubanshe [Central Nationalities Institute Press], 1990.

Pan Nianying 潘年英. Qiandongnan shanzhai de yuanshi tuxiang 黔东南山寨的原始图像 [Images of the Primitive Mountain Villages of Southeast Guizhou]. Shanghai: Shanghai wenhua chubanshe [Shanghai Cultural Press], 2005.

______. Zoujin yinyue tiantang: Dongzu dage zhi xiang Xiao Huang cun tianye kaocha shilu 走进音乐天堂:侗族大歌之乡小黄村田野考察实录 [Entering into a Musical Paradise: Faithful Records from Fieldwork in Xiao Huang Village, the Homeland of Kam Big Song]. Nanning: Guangxi renmin chubanshe [Guangxi People’s Press], 2007.

Qiandongnan fangyan zhi. 2007. (full title: Qiandongnan fangyan zhi: Qiandongnan Miaozu Dongzu diqu hanyu fangyan diaocha yanjiu 黔东南方言志:黔东南苗族侗族地区汉语方言调查研究 [Records of the Dialects of Southeast Guizhou: Investigation and Research into the Han Dialects of Miao and Kam Areas of Southeast Guizhou]). Edited by Qiandongnan zhou difangzhi bangongshi 黔东南州地方志办公室编辑 [Gazetteer Office of the Southeast Guizhou Prefecture]. Chengdu: Sichuan chuban jituan, Ba-Shu shushe [Ba-Shu Publishing House, Sichuan Publishing Group].

Qiandongnan feiwuzhi wenhua yichan jijin 黔东南非物质文化遗产集锦 [A Collection of Choice Examples of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Southeast Guizhou]. Edited by Qiandongnan Miaozu Dongzu zizhizhou wenhuaju 黔东南苗族侗族自治州文化局 [Cultural Bureau of the Southeast Guizhou Miao and Kam Autonomous Prefecture]. Guiyang: Guizhou minzu chubanshe [Guizhou Nationalities Press], 2007.

Qiandongnan Miaozu Dongzu zizhizhou zhi: dang’an zhi   黔东南苗族侗族自治州志:档案志 [Southeast Guizhou Miao and Kam Autonomous Prefecture Gazetteer: Archives]. Edited by Qiandongnan Miaozu Dongzu zizhizhou difang zhi bianzuan weiyuanhui 黔东南苗族侗族自治州地方志编纂委员会 [Editorial Committee for the Local Records of Southeast Guizhou Miao and Kam Autonomous Prefecture]. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 1992.

Qiandongnan Miaozu Dongzu zizhizhou zhi: dili zhi  黔东南苗族侗族自治州志:地理志 [Southeast Guizhou Miao and Kam Autonomous Prefecture Gazetteer: Geography]. Edited by Qiandongnan Miaozu Dongzu zizhizhou difang zhi bianzuan weiyuanhui 黔东南苗族侗族自治州地方志编纂委员会 [Editorial Committee for the Local Records of Southeast Guizhou Miao and Kam Autonomous Prefecture]. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 1990.

Qiandongnan Miaozu Dongzu zizhizhou zhi: wenhua zhi  黔东南苗族侗族自治州志:文化志 [Southeast Guizhou Miao and Kam Autonomous Prefecture Gazetteer: Culture]. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 2004.

Rongjiang xian zhi 榕江县志 [Rongjiang County Gazetteer]. Edited by Rongjiang xian difang zhi bianzuan weiyuanhui 榕江县地方志编纂委员会 [Rongjiang County Local Records Editorial Committee]. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 1999.

Ruan Xing. Allegorical Architecture: Living Myth and Archetectonics in Southern China. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2006.

Sanjiang Dongzu zizhixian zhi 三江侗族自治县志 [Sanjiang Kam Autonomous County Gazetteer]. Edited by “Guangxi Sanjiang Dongzu zizhixian zhi” bianzuan weiyuanhui《广西三江侗族自治县志》编纂委员会 [“Guangxi Sanjiang Kam Autonomous County Gazetteer” Editorial Committee]. Beijing: Zhongyang minzu xueyuan chubanshe [Central Nationalities Institute Press], 1992.
Shi Kaizhong 石开忠. Dongzu kuan zuzhi jiqi bianqian yanjiu 侗族款组织及其变迁研究 [Research into the Kam “Kuan” Structure and its Changes]. Beijing: Minzu chubanshe [Nationalities Press], 2009.

Shi Lin 石林. Dongyu Hanyu yufa bijiao yanjiu 侗语汉语语法比较研究 [Research and Comparison of Kam and Han Grammar]. Beijing: Zhongyang minzu daxue chubanshe [Central University for Nationalities Press], 1997.

Somsonge Burusphat, Sumittra Suraratdecha, and Yang Quan (compilers). Kam Chinese Thai English Dictionary. Edited by J. A. Edmondson, Yang Tongyin and Qin Qiaohang. Nakhonpathom, Thailand: Institute of Language and Culture for Rural Development, Mahidol University, Thailand, 2000.

Tongdao xian zhi 通道县志 [Tongdao County Gazetteer]. Edited by Tongdao Dongzu zizhixian xianzhi bianzuan weiyuanhui 《通道侗族自治县志》编纂委员会 [“Tongdao Kam Autonomous County Gazetteer” Editorial Committee]. Beijing: Minzu chubanshe [Nationalities Press], 1999.

Tuxiang renleixue shiye zhong de Guizhou Dongzu gulou  图像人类学视野中的贵州侗族鼓楼 [A Visual Anthropological View of the Kam Drum Towers of Guizhou]. Edited by Guizhou sheng wenhuating 贵州省文化厅 [Guizhou Province Cultural Bureau]. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 2002.

Wang Jianrong 王建荣 (chief ed.), Hunan Dongzu bai nian 湖南侗族百年 [A Hundred Years of Kam History in Hunan]. Changsha: Yuelu shu she [Yuelu Publishing House], 1998.

Wu Dingguo 吴定国, and Deng Minwen 邓敏文. Chan sheng zhong de wenhua: Dongzu dage shiling 蝉声中的文化:侗族大歌拾零[Culture in the Sound of the Cicada: Kam Big Song Highlights]. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 2005.

Wu Fan 吴凡. Dongzu Yinyue 侗族音乐 [Kam Music]. Beijing: Zhongguo wenlian chubanshe [China Arts and Literature Press], 2008.

Wu Hao, ed. Zhongguo Dongzu cunzhai wenhua 中国侗族村寨文化 [Village Culture of the Kam People of China]. Beijing: Minzu chubanshe [Nationalities Press], 2004.

Wu Hao 吴浩, and Zhang Zezhong 张泽忠. Dongzu geyao yanjiu. 侗族歌谣研究 [Research into Kam Song]. Nanning: Guangxi renmin chubanshe [Guangxi People’s Press], 1991.

Wu Hao 吴浩, Zhang Zezhong 张泽忠, and Huang Zhongjing 黄钟警. Dongxue Yanjiu Xin Shiye 侗学研究新视野 [A New View of Kam Studies Research]. Nanning: Guangxi minzu chubanshe [Guangxi Nationalities Press], 2008.

Wu Xiangxiong 吴祥雄, ed. Hunan Dongzu fengqing 湖南侗族风情 [The Local Customs of the Kam in Hunan]. Changsha: Yuelu shushe [Yuelu Publishing House], 2003.

Wu Yongzhang 吴永章. Zhongguo nanfang minzu shizhi yaoji tijie. 中国南方民族史志要籍题解 [An Explanatory Background to the Essential Historical Records of China’s Southern Groups]. Beijing: Renmin chubanshe [The People’s Press], 1991.

Yang Quan 杨权, and Zheng Guoqiao 郑国桥. “Dongzu” 侗族 [The Kam]. In Dong, Shui, Maonan, Mulao, Li zu wenhuazhi 侗、水、毛南、仫佬、黎族文化志 [Records of the Culture of Kam, Shui, Maonan, Mulao and Li Ethnic Groups], edited by Wang Yao 王耀 (chief ed.), Shanghai: Shanghai renmin chubanshe [Shanghai People’s Press], 1998.

Yang Tongyin 杨通银. Tongdao Dongyu yuyan yanjiiu: gongneng shiye xia de yuyin, jufa he yupian yanjiu 通道侗语语言研究:功能视野下的语音、句法和语篇研究[Research into the Kam Language of Tongdao: Research Under the Functional View of Phonetics, Sentence Construction and Language Organization]. Beijing: Minzu chubanshe [Nationalities Press], 2009.

Yang Xiao 杨晓. Dongzu dage 侗族大歌 [Kam Big Song]. Hangzhou: Zhejiang renmin chubanshe [Zhejiang People’s Press], 2009.

Yang Zhujian 杨筑慧 Dongzu fengsu zhi 侗族风俗志 [A Record of Kam Customs]. Beijing: Zhongyang minzu daxue chubanshe [Central Nationalities University Press], 2006.

Yao Lijuan 姚丽娟, and Shi Kaizhong 石开忠. Dongzu diqu de shehui bianqian 侗族地区的社会变迁 [Societal Changes in Kam Areas]. Beijing: Zhongyang minzu daxue chubanshe [Central Nationalities University Press], 2005.

Yu Weiren 余未人. Zoujin gulou: Dongzu nanbu shequ wenhua koushi shi 走进鼓楼:侗族南部社区文化口述史 [Entering the Drum Tower: Oral History of the Southern Kam Cultural Region]. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 2001.

Yuping xian zhi 玉屏县志 [Yuping County Gazetteer]. Edited by Yuping Dongzu zizhixian xianzhi bianzuan weiyuanhui 《玉屏侗族自治县志》编纂委员会 [“Yuping Kam Autonomous County Gazetteer” Editorial Committee]. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe [Guizhou People’s Press], 1993.

Zejun Haonianxi 择均 浩年曦 Dongzu minjian wenhua shenmei lun. 侗族民间文化审美论 [On Kam Folk Cultural Aesthetics] [Actual authors are Zhang Zezhong 张泽忠, Yang Junte 杨均特, Wu Hao 吴浩, Pan Nianying 潘年英 and Yang Xi 杨曦]. Guangxi gezu minjian wenyi yanjiu congshu [Guangxi Nationalities Folk Arts Research Series]. Nanning: Guangxi renmin chubanshe [Guangxi People’s Press], 1994.

Zhang Bairu 张柏如. Dongzu jianzhu yishu 侗族建筑艺术 [The Art of Kam Architecture]. Changsha: Hunan meishu chubanshe [Hunan Arts Press], 2004.

Zhang Lijun 张力军, and Xiao Kezhi 肖克之, eds. Xiao Huang Dongzu minsu: bowuguan zai feiwuzhi wenhua yichan baohu zhong de lilun yanjiu yu shixian 小黄侗族民俗:博物馆在非物质文化遗产保护中的理论研究与实践 [The Kam Customs of Xiao Huang: Museums Within the Research Theory and Practice of Protecting Intangible Cultural Heritage]. Beijing: Zhongguo nongye chubanshe [China Agricultural Press], 2008.

Zhang Xiaosong 张晓松. Miao Dong zhi xiang: Qiandongnan wenhua kaocha 苗侗之乡:黔东南文化考察 [Miao and Kam Homelands: Research into the Culture of Southeast Guizhou]. Chengdu: Sichuan renmin chubanshe [Sichuan People's Press], 2003.

Zhang Yong 张勇, and Liu Zhenguo 刘振国, eds. Dongzu quyi yinyue 侗族曲艺音乐 [Kam Narrative Art Music]. Guiyang: Guizhou minzu chubanshe [Guizhou Nationalities Press], 1997.

Zhang Zhongxiao 张中笑, and Yang Fanggang 杨方刚, eds. Dongzu dage yanjiu wushi nian 侗族大歌研究五十年 [Fifty Years of Kam Big Song Research]. Guiyang: Guizhou minzu chubanshe [Guizhou Nationalities Press], 2003.

Zhong Tao 仲涛. 2007. Zhongguo Dongzu. 中国侗族 [The Kam People of China]. Guiyang: Guizhou minzu chubanshe [Guizhou Nationalities Press], 2007.

Zhongguo geyao jicheng Guizhou juan 中国歌谣集成贵州卷 [Anthology of Chinese Songs: Guizhou Volume]. Edited by Zhongguo minjian wenxue jicheng quanguo bianji weiyuanhui 中国民间文学集成全国编辑委员会 [Anthology of Chinese Folk Literature National Editorial Committee] and Zhongguo geyao jicheng Guizhou juan bianji weiyuanhui 中国歌谣集成贵州卷编辑委员会 [Anthology of Chinese Songs: Guizhou Volume Editorial Committee]. Beijing: Zhongguo ISBN zhongxin [China ISBN Centre], 2009.

Zhongguo Hunan Tongdao Dongzu wenhua yichan jicheng 中国湖南通道侗族文化遗产集成 [An Anthology of the Cultural Heritage of the Kam of Tongdao, Hunan, China]. Edited by Lu Zhongwu 陆中午 and Wu Bingsheng 吴炳升. Beijing: Minzu chubanshe [Nationalities Press], 2004.

Zhongguo minjian gequ jicheng Guizhou juan (shang) 中国民间歌曲集成:贵州卷(上) [Anthology of Chinese Folksong: Guizhou (Volume 1)]). Edited by Zhongguo minjian gequ jicheng quanguo bianji weiyuanhui 中国民间歌曲集成全国编辑委员会 [National Editorial Committee for the Anthology of Chinese Folksong] and Zhongguo minjian gequ jicheng Guizhou juan bianji weiyuanhui 中国民间歌曲集成-贵州卷编辑委员会 [Guizhou Volume Editorial Committee for the Anthology of Chinese Folksong]. Beijing: Zhongguo ISBN zhongxin [China ISBN Centre], 1995.

Zhu Huizhen 朱慧珍, and Zhang Zezhong 张泽忠. Shi yi de shengcun: Dongzu shengtai wenhua shenmei lungang 诗意的生存:侗族生态文化审美论纲 [The Existence of Poetic Quality: A Discussion and Outline on the Aesthetics of Kam Cultural Ecology]. Beijing: Minzu chubanshe [Nationalities Press], 2005.

Zwerger, Klaus. 2006. Vanishing Tradition: Architecture and Carpentry of the Dong Minority in China. Bangkok: Orchid Press.

Other Works Cited

These works are not included in the Selected Bibliography, but are cited in the main text. Not all works are held in the University of Melbourne Library.

2000 nian renkou pucha Zhongguo minzu renkou ziliao 2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料 [Chinese Nationalities Population Materials from the 2000 Population Census]). Edited by Guojia tongjiju renkou he shehui keji tongjisi 国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司 [Department of Population Social Science and Technology Statistics, National Bureau of Statistics] and Guojia minzu shiwu weiyuanhui jingji fazhansi 国家民族事务委员会经济发展司 [Department of Economics and Development, National Ethnic Affairs Commission]. Beijing: Minzu chubanshe [Nationalities Press], 2003.

2006 nian Qiandongnan tongji nianjian 2006年黔东南统计年鉴 [Qiandongnan Statistical Yearbook 2006] Beijing: Zhongguo tongji chubanshe [China Statistics Press], 2007.

2010 nian di shi’si jie qingge sai mingsai xiang huojiang mingdan 2010年第十四届青歌赛名赛项获奖名单 [The Names of the Medal Winners of the 2010 Fourteenth Youth Song Competition], available at http://news.mso.com.cn/481_ zhengjie/2133782.html.

de Beauclair, Inez. Ethnographic Studies: The Collected Papers of Inez de Beauclair Taipei: Southern Materials Centre, Inc, 1986.
Giersch, C. Patterson. Asian Borderlands: The Transformation of Qing China’s Yunnan Frontier. Cambridge MA & London: Harvard University Press, 2006.

Grand Song of the Dong Ethnic Group; see http://www.unesco.org/archives/multimedia/index.php?s=films_details&id_page=33&id_film=350.

Ingram, Catherine. “Hwun hwun jon ka (Listen): Kam Villagers Singing Big Song in Early Twenty-First-Century China,” PhD, University of Melbourne, 2010.

Ingram, Catherine, with Wu Jialing 吴家玲, Wu Meifang 吴美芳, Wu Meixiang 吴梅香, Wu Pinxian 吴品仙, and Wu Xuegui 吴学桂. “Taking the Stage: Rural Kam Women and Contemporary Kam ‘Cultural Development’.” In Women, Gender and Development in Rural China, edited by Tamara Jacka and Sally Sargeson. Cheltenham, UK & Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, forthcoming.

Oakes, Timothy S. “Tourism in Guizhou: The Legacy of Internal Colonialism.” In Tourism in China: Geographic, Political, and Economic Perspectives, edited by Alan A. Lew and Lawrence Yu, 203–22. Boulder: Westview Press, 1995.

______. Tourism and Modernity in China. London & New York: Routledge, 1998.

______. “Ethnic Tourism in Rural Guizhou: Sense of Place and the Commerce of Authenticity.” In Tourism, Ethnicity, and the State in Asian and Pacific Societies, edited by M. Picard and R. E. Wood, 35–70. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 1999.

Rossi, Gail, and Paul Lau. The Dong People of China: A Hidden Civilization. Singapore: Hagley & Hoyle, 1991.

Took, Jennifer. A Native Chieftancy in Southwest China: Franchising a Tai Chieftaincy under the Tusi System of Late Imperial China. Leiden: Brill, 2005.

Wu Wanyuan 吴万源. “Hubei E’xi Dongzu kaocha ji” 湖北鄂西侗族考察记 [Records of Investigation into the Kam of Western Hubei]. In Dongzu bainian shilu (shang xia ce) 侗族百年实录(上下册)[Veritable Records of One Hundred Years of the Kam], edited by “Dongzu bainian shilu” bianweihui《侗族百年实录》编委会 [“Veritable Records of One Hundred Years of the Kam” Editorial Committee], 726–32. Beijing: Zhongguo wenshi chubanshe [China Literature and History Press], 2000.

Yang Quan, and Jerold A. Edmondson. “The Kam in Ancient Times.” In Southeast Asian Linguistic Studies in Honour of Vichin Panupong, edited by A. S. Abramson, 325–36. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Press, 1997.

 


 
   
     

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